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Airfoils and wings at low Reynolds number

  1. Klose BF, Spedding GR & Jacobs GB 2023 Direct numerical simulation of cambered airfoil aerodynamics at Re = 20 000. J. Fluid Mech. (in prep.)
  2. Kornbluh R, Kirkwood G, West, M, Yohanna H, Spedding GR & Kudva J 2023 Application of electrolaminates for the development of biomimetic morphing UAVs. J. Comp. Mat.;0(0) 1-11. doi:10.1177/00219983221150335 [pdf]
  3. Tank JD, Klose BF, Jacobs GB & Spedding GR 2021 Flow transitions on a cambered airfoil at moderate Reynolds number. Phys. Fluids 33, 093105, [doi: 10.1063/5.0061939] [pdf]
  4. Klose B, Spedding GR & Jacobs G 2021 What is the effect of self-induced pressure waves and their wall reflections on low Reynolds number airfoil flow in wind tunnels? AIAA SciTech Forum, AIAA-2021-1195 doi:10.2514.2021-1195 [pdf]
  5. Hanna YGT, West MN, Kudva J & Spedding GR 2020 Stepped wings at moderate Re with implications on multipoint wing design. AIAA SciTech Forum 6-10 Jan, Orlando FL. AIAA 2020-0803 [pdf]
  6. Hanna YGT & Spedding GR 2019 Aerodynamic performance improvements due to porosity in wings at moderate Re. 2019 AIAA Aviation and Aeronautics Forum and Exposition, 17-21 June 2019, Dallas, Texas. AIAA 2019-3584 [pdf]
  7. Tank J, Klose B, Jacobs G & Spedding GR 2019 Computer and laboratory studies on the aerodynamics of the NACA 65(1)-412 at Reynolds number 20 000 AIAA SciTech Forum, AIAA-2019-2162 [pdf]
  8. Kamphuis MH, Jacobs GB, Chen KK, Spedding GR, and Hoeijmakers HWM. 2018 Pulse actuation and its effects on separated Lagrangian coherent structures for flow over a cambered airfoil, 2018 AIAA Aerosp. Sci. Mtg., AIAA SciTech Forum, (AIAA 2018-2255) [pdf]
  9. Tank J, Smith L & Spedding GR 2017 On the possibility (or lack thereof) of agreement between experiment and computation of flows over wings at moderate Reynolds number. R. Soc. Interface Focus 2017 7 (1) 20160076; [doi: 10.1098/rsfs.2016.0076] [pdf]
  10. Davis, TW & Spedding GR 2015 Lift and drag measurements of a gull-wing aircraft. SciTech15, AIAA Conference, AIAA 2015-0027
  11. Yang SL & Spedding GR 2014 Local acoustic forcing of a wing at low Reynolds numbers. AIAA J. 52, 2867-2876 [doi:] [pdf]
  12. Yang SL & Spedding GR 2013 Passive separation control by acoustic resonance. Exp. Fluids 54, 1603 [doi: 10.1007/s00348-013-1603-6] [pdf]
  13. Yang SL & Spedding GR 2013 Separation control by external acoustic excitation on a finite wing at low Reynolds numbers. AIAA J. 51, 1506-1515. [doi: 10.2514/1.J052191] [pdf]
  14. Yang SL & Spedding GR 2013 Spanwise variation in wing circulation and drag measurement of wings at moderate Reynolds number. J. Aircraft 50, 791-797. [doi: 10.2514/1.C031981] [pdf]
  15. Spedding GR & McArthur J 2010 Span efficiencies of wings at low Reynolds number. J. Aircraft 47, 120-128. [doi: 10.2514/1.44247] [pdf]
  16. Spedding GR & Lissaman PBS 1998 Technical aspects of microscale flight systems J. Avian Biol., 29, 458-468. [pdf]

Novel aircraft configuration

  1. Huyssen RJ & Spedding GR 2023 On the existence of a hitherto untested, optimal aircraft configuration. J. Aircraft. (in prep.)
  2. Smith L, Craig KJ, Meyer JP & Spedding GR 2018 Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic performance for an alternative wing-body-tail configuration. J. Aircraft [doi: 10.2514/1.C034595] [pdf]
  3. Smith L, Craig KJ, Meyer JP & Spedding GR 2017 Modifying low-drag bodies to generate lift: a computational study. J. Aircraft 54 1150-1161 [doi: /10.2514/1.C034051] [pdf]
  4. Huyssen RJ, Mathews EH Liebenberg L & Spedding GR 2016 On the wing density and the Inflation Factor of aircraft. Aero. J. 120, 291-312. [pdf]
  5. Huyssen RJ, Spedding GR, Mathews EH & Liebenberg L 2012 Wing-body circulation control by means of a fuselage trailing edge. J. Aircraft 49 (5), 1279-1289. [pdf]

Birds and bats

  1. Spedding GR & Hedenström A 2021 C.J. Pennycuick, 11 June 1933 – 8 December 2019 Biographical Memoirs of the Royal Society [doi:[pdf]
  2. Muijres FT, Spedding GR, Winter Y & Hedenström A 2011 Actuator disk model and span efficiency of flapping flight in bats based on time-resolved PIV measurements. Exp. Fluids 51, 511-525. [doi:10.1007/s00348-011-1067-5].[pdf]
  3. Spedding GR 2011 The cost of flight in flocks. Nature 474, 458-459. (commentary) [pdf]
  4. Hedenström A, Muijres FT, von Busse R, Johansson LC, Winter Y & Spedding GR 2010 High-speed stereo DPIV measurement of wakes of two bat species flying freely in a wind tunnel. In: Taylor GK, Triantafyllou MS, Tropea C (eds) Animal Locomotion. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. [pdf]
  5. Hedenström A, Johansson LC & Spedding GR 2009 Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance. Bioinsp. Biomim. 4 015001 [doi:10.1088/1748-3182/4/1/015001] [pdf]
  6. Spedding GR & Hedenström A 2009 PIV-based investigations of animal flight. Exp. Fluids 46, 749–763. [doi: 10.1007/s00348-008-0597-y] [pdf]
  7. Johansson LC, Wolf M, von Busse R, Winter Y, Spedding GR & Hedenström A 2008 The near and far wake of Pallas’ long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina). J. Exp. Biol. 211, 2909-2918 [pdf]
  8. Hedenström A & Spedding GR 2008 Beyond robins: aerodynamic analyses of animal flight. J. R. Soc. Interface 5, 595-601. [pdf]
  9. Muijres FT, Johansson LC, Barfield R, Wolf M, Spedding GR & Hedenström A 2008 Leading-edge vortices increase lift in bat flight. Science 319, 1250-1253. [pdf]
  10. Henningsson P, Spedding GR & Hedenström A 2008 Vortex wake and flight kinematics of a swift in cruising flight in a wind tunnel. Exp. Biol. 211, 717-730.
  11. Spedding GR, Hedenström A, McArthur J & Rosén M 2008 The implications of low-speed fixed-wing aerofoil measurements on the analysis and performance of flapping bird wings J. Exp. Biol. 211, 215-223. [doi:10.1242/jeb.007823] [pdf]
  12. Hedenström A, Johansson LC, Wolf M, von Busse R, Winter Y & Spedding GR 2007 Bat flight generates complex aerodynamic tracks. Science 316, 894-897. [pdf]
  13. Rosén M, Spedding GR & Hedenström A 2007 Wake structure and wingbeat kinematics of a house-martin Delichon urbica. J. R. Soc. Interface 4, 659-668. [doi: 10.1098/rsif.2007.0215] [pdf]
  14. Hedenström A, Griethuijsen L, Rosén M, & Spedding GR 2006 Vortex wakes of birds: recent results using particle imaging velocimetry. Animal Biol. 56, 535-549. [pdf]
  15. Hedenström A, Rosén M, & Spedding GR 2006 Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel. J. R. Soc. Interface 3, 263-276. [pdf]
  16. Rosén M, Spedding GR & Hedenström A 2004 The relationship between wingbeat kinematics and vortex wake of a thrush nightingale. J. Exp. Biol. 207, 4255-4268. [pdf]
  17. Spedding GR 2003 Comparing fluid mechanics models with experiment. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 358, 1567-1576. [pdf]
  18. Spedding GR, Rosén M & Hedenström A 2003 A family of vortex wakes generated by a thrush nightingale in free flight over its entire range of flight speeds. J. Exp. Biol. 206, 2313-2344. [pdf]
  19. Spedding GR & Pennycuick CJ 2001 Uncertainty analysis for experimental and theoretical power curves. J. Theor. Biol. 208, 127-139. [pdf]
  20. Spedding GR & DeLaurier JD 1996 Animal and Ornithopter Flight. In: Schetz JA & Fuhs AE (eds). Handbook of Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machinery. Volume 3:  Applications of Fluid Dynamics. pp 1951-1967.  John Wiley & Sons, NY.
  21. Spedding GR 1993 On the significance of unsteady effects in the performance of flying animals. Contemp. Math. 141, 401-419. [pdf]
  22. Spedding GR 1992 The Aerodynamics of Flight. In: Alexander, R McN (ed). Adv. Comp. Physiol. 11 The Mechanics of Animal Locomotion. Springer-Verlag. pp 51-111. [pdf]
  23. Karpouzian G, Spedding GR & Cheng HK 1990 Lunate-tail swimming propulsion. Part 2. Performance analysis. J. Fluid Mech. 210, 329-351. [doi: 10.1017/S0022112090001318[pdf]
  24. Spedding GR 1987 The wake of a kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in flapping flight. J. Exp. Biol. 127, 59-78. [pdf]
  25. Spedding GR 1987 The wake of a kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in gliding flight. J. Exp. Biol. 127, 45-57. [pdf]
  26. Spedding GR & Maxworthy T 1986 The generation of circulation and lift in a rigid two-dimensional fling. J. Fluid Mech. 165, 247-272. [doi:[pdf]
  27. Spedding GR 1986 The wake of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula) in slow flight. J. Exp. Biol. 125, 287-307. [pdf]
  28. Spedding GR, Rayner JMV & Pennycuick CJ 1984 Momentum and energy in the wake of a pigeon (Columba livia) in slow flight. J. Exp. Biol. 111, 81-102. [pdf]


  1. Spedding GR, Hedenström A & Johansson LC 2009 A note on wind-tunnel turbulence measurements with DPIV. Exp. Fluids 46, 527-537. [pdf]
  2. Spedding GR, Hedenström A & Rosén M 2003 Quantitative studies of the wakes of freely-flying birds in a low turbulence wind tunnel. Exp. Fluids 34, 291-303. [pdf]
  3. Fincham AM & Spedding GR 1997 Low-cost, high resolution DPIV for measurement of turbulent fluid flow. Exp. Fluids 23, 449-462. [doi:10.1007/s003480050135] [pdf]
  4. Spedding GR & Rignot EJM 1993 Performance analysis and application of grid interpolation techniques for fluid flows. Exp. Fluids 15, 417-430.[pdf]
  5. Spedding GR, Browand FKB, Huang NE & Long SR 1993 A 2D complex wavelet analysis of an unsteady wind-generated surface wave field. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 20, 55-77. [pdf]
  6. Dallard T & Spedding GR 1993 2D wavelet transforms: generalisation of the Hardy space and application to experimental studies. Eur. J. Mech B/Fluids 12, 107-134. [pdf]